Can I use a copyright work without the permission of the copyright owner?

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There are a number of exceptions in copyright law, which allow limited uses of copyright works without the permission of the copyright owner. Normally permission is not needed if using less than a substantial part of a copyright protected work.

The following list of exceptions is not exhaustive and particular care should be taken if intending to rely on an exception:

- non-commercial research and private study;

- criticism, review and reporting current events;

- teaching in educational establishments;

- helping visually impaired people;

- time shifting;

- material used in legal proceedings.

Certain exceptions require giving sufficient acknowledgment when making use of a copyright protected work.