Glossary

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ICANN

the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers is the organisation responsible for the Internet’s global Domain Name System (DNS). Through its Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP), ICANN provides a tool for the resolution of domain name conflicts based on alternative dispute resolution mechanisms.

ICT

is the abbreviation for Information and Communications Technology. The term refers to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications. This includes the Internet, wireless networks, cell phones, and other communication devices.

ICT Policy Support Programme (CIP ICT PSP)

was a specific programme of CIP aiming at stimulating innovation and competitiveness through the wider uptake and best use of ICT by citizens, governments and businesses.

Indirect action

means research and innovation activities to which the European Union provides financial support through the EU Framework Programme (e.g. Horizon 2020) and which are undertaken by participants. It is usually simply called “project”.

Indirect use (see Use)

in FP7 refers to the use of the resulting knowledge (foreground) by parties other than the beneficiary who generated the foreground, namely through an assignment of rights or a grant of a license.

Industrial applicability

is one of the three basic patentability requirements under the European Patent Convention. An invention will be considered capable of industrial application if it can be made or used in any kind of industry. This requirement is to be understood in a broad sense: it includes for instance applications in the agricultural field. See also: Inventive step and Novelty.

Industrial Design

is an intellectual property right aimed at protecting the appearance of products, in particular resulting from its lines, contours, colours, shape and materials.

It consists of the right to prevent any third party from making, offering, selling, importing, exporting or using a product in which the design is incorporated or to which it is applied, or stocking such a product, without the design owner's consent, when such acts are undertaken for commercial purposes.

Infringement

a violation or infraction of the terms of an agreement, encroachment, trespass, or disregard of others' rights. Intellectual property infringement will refer to a breach of rights resulting from a patent, copyright, database right, performer right, design, trade mark, etc.

 

Injunctive relief

is a legal remedy that may be sought in a civil lawsuit (in addition to, or in place of, monetary damages) to stop an unlawful behaviour.

Innovation action

in Horizon 2020, refers to an action primarily consisting of activities directly aimed at producing plans and arrangements or designs for new, altered or improved products, processes or services. For this purpose they may include prototyping, testing, demonstrating, piloting, large-scale product validation and market replication.

Intellectual Property (IP)

Is a term referred to types of property that result from creations of the human mind (the intellect). In a broad sense, it comprises patents, copyright and related rights, trade marks, know-how, trade secrets, industrial designs, designs, drawings, reports, methods of research and developments, documented data, and description of inventions and discoveries.

Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs)

are private legal rights that protect the creation of the human mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce. They are commonly divided into two categories:  Industrial Property Rights (e.g. patents, trade marks, industrial designs, geographical indications) and Copyright and Related rights (e.g. rights of the authors/creators and those of performing artists in their performances, producers of phonograms in their recordings, and those of broadcasters in their radio and television programmes).

Intelligent Energy Europe Programme (CIP IEE)

was a specific programme of CIP for supporting and funding concrete projects, initiatives and best practices to save energy and encourage the use of renewable energy sources in Europe.

International European Interest Organisation

means, according to the FP7 Rules for Participation, an international organisation, the majority of whose members are member states of the EU or associated countries, and whose principal objective is to promote scientific and technological cooperation in Europe.

International Organisation

means, according to the FP7 Rules for Participation, an intergovernmental organisation, other than the EU, which has legal personality under international public law, as well as any specialised agency set up by such an international organisation.

Inventive step

is one of the three basic patentability requirements under the European Patent Convention. It means that an invention must be non-obvious to a person skilled in the field, having regard to the state of the art, in order to be patentable. See also: Industrial applicability and Novelty.

Inventorship

the quality or state of being an inventor (a person who conceived an invention). In order to be considered as an inventor it is generally acknowledged that a certain level of contribution to the development of the creative elements of an invention (technical creativity) must be met. Inventors are always entitled to be designated on the patent, regardless of who files the application. An inventor is not necessarily always the owner of the rights in his invention, as the rights to patent grant might have been assigned to a different subject.

IP due diligence

Intended as the exercise to gather as much information as possible on the value and the risks of a company's intangible assets, with a view to acquiring IP, raising capital and seeking financial assistance (e.g. bank loans). Although IP due diligence is a precondition for any capital investment, it can be helpful for enforcing IP rights and reducing the IP-related costs as well. In a few words, IP due diligence can be considered as an essential process when developing an IP strategy.

IP Valuation

is an assessment of the value of a particular IP asset. IP valuation may be quantitative or qualitative in nature. There are a variety of methods to value IP.