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Term Explanation

a collection of independent components (information, works, data or other materials) arranged in a methodical or systematic way and according to specific criteria, and made individually accessible by electronic or other means. Under EU law, the cumulative protection of databases is possible under copyright (if the arrangement of data meets the conditions of originality and creativity) and more broadly, under a sui generis right (provided that the arrangement of data has involved a qualitatively or quantitatively substantial investment).


a distinct output of the project, meaningful in terms of the project's overall objectives and constituted by a report, a document, a technical diagram,  software component, etc.

Demonstration activities

are used to prove the viability of new technologies, which cannot be commercialised directly (e.g. testing, prototype, scale-up studies, design, piloting innovative processes, products and services, validation, performance verification, etc.).

Description of the action

in the context of Horizon 2020, refers to Annex 1 to the Grant Agreement, which is built on the proposal “Technical Annex”.

Description of Work (DoW)

in the context of FP7, refers to Annex I to the Grant Agreement. It contains information on the work packages, deliverables, milestones, resources and costs of the beneficiaries, as well as a text with a detailed description of the work.


constitutes the outward appearance of a product or part thereof resulting, in particular, from the characteristics of its lines, contours, colours, shape, surface, structure and/or materials and/or its ornamentation.

Direct Action

means the research and innovation activities undertaken by the Commission through the Joint Research Centre (JRC).

Direct utilisation (see Use)

in FP7, refers to the use made by the participant owning the foreground, for example through further research, commercial or industrial exploitation in its own activities.


The first public disclosure of details of an invention. If the disclosure is made outside the patent system (in a deliberately form or not), the invention remains unpatentable. In return for a patent granted (exclusive rights for a limited time period), the applicant must make a full disclosure of the invention for which protection has been solicited.

Dissemination (FP7)

in FP7, refers to the disclosure of foreground by participants through any appropriate means and including the publication in any form. The disclosure of foreground that results from formalities for protection (such as the patent application publication) is not considered as dissemination.

Dissemination (Horizon 2020)

means, in Horizon 2020, the public disclosure of the results by any appropriate means (other than resulting from protecting or exploiting the results), including by scientific publications in any medium.

Domain names

names registered with accredited Registrars, and used to identify a particular website or webpage on the Web. Each domain name consists of two parts: a top-level domain (TLD – .com, .net, .org, .eu) and a second level domain, which represents the entity that owns the domain name.

Due diligence

See IP due diligence